Global Peace and Security Archive

Global Peace & Security Archive

Terrorism, a new category wedged between war and peace

We know that there’s war, and that there’s peace—but not that there’s something in between. Yet, the terrorists of the Paris attacks have added a new category to our notion of violence. A commentary by the political scientist Herfried Münkler.

By Herfried Münkler

A Progressive Response to BDS

Those convinced that Israel should not have been created in the first place, or that it no longer has the right to exist, are entitled to their opinion. But they have obligations, too. They must come clean about seeking a post-Israel endgame. An essay by Prof. Dan Rabinowitz

By Prof. Dan Rabinowitz

Civil society under pressure

Shrinking – closing – no space: Governments across all continents villainize civil society actors. Where does their sense of threat emanate from?

By Barbara Unmüßig

Weathering the Perfect Diplomatic Storm

Never before has the US-Israel relationship been as fraught as it is today. The Profound differences in strategic outlook vis-à-vis Iran, the Palestinian issue, and the toxic interpersonal relations between the US President and the Israeli Prime Minister all contribute to a tense political atmosphere. Will the bilateral relationship recover?

By Prof. Daniel C. Kurtzer

Changing the Conversation on Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions

Support for boycotts, divestment, and sanctions (BDS) targeting Israel is growing, generating great angst amongst Israel supporters – including pro-peace progressives – in the United States and elsewhere in the world. How can pro-peace progressives respond to the BDS movement?

By Lara Friedman

The American-Jewish Community: Sea Change or Status Quo?

The battle over the Iran deal has shattered AIPAC’s myth of invincibility, as well as the notion that supporting Israel requires the American-Jewish community to unquestioningly support the Israeli government. The way is now open to a more nuanced concept of what support of Israel can and should entail.

By Alan Elsner

“Made in Canada”: Arms Exports on the Rise

Canada’s Conservative government often boasts having one of the strictest national control regimes for military exports in the world. A recent major arms deal with Saudi Arabia - the biggest in Canada's history- tells a different story. If a country like Saudi Arabia is classified as a suitable recipient for arms exports, what country, if any, would be classified as unsuitable?

By Charlotte Beck

Talking with Assad: an End in Itself? A Response to Phil Gordon

Triggered by Russia’s push to turn the military tide in Syria in Assad’s favor, Washington D.C. is currently seeing renewed debates about the need to revise the administration’s Syria policy. Prominent voices, such as former White House Coordinator for the Middle East Phil Gordon, have advocated for striving for a negotiated interim solution in Syria that defers the question of Assad’s fate. Bente Scheller, hbs office director in Lebanon, addresses some of the underlying myths and arguments shaping the current debate.  

By Bente Scheller

From founding father to backslider: Canada and the R2P

Canada’s national interest is often said to center around one single objective, namely a close but independent relationship with the United States. In the 90s and early 2000s, Canada's Liberal government begged to differ. During its international heyday, Canada became the patron of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P). Whatever happened to Canada's commitment to the R2P under Harper's Conservative government? 
By Charlotte Beck

“Modernity means more than having several luxurious shopping malls”

Turkey is currently undergoing a period of domestic turmoil while facing various external challenges along its borders. We spoke with Kristian Brakel, office director of hbs Turkey, about the recently announced snap elections, chances for reviving the peace process with the Kurdish PKK, and U.S.-Turkish cooperation in fighting the Islamic State (IS).   

“Chances to re-negotiate the deal are absolutely zero”

In the aftermath of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), agreed upon between the P5+1 and Iran on July 14, 2015, a heated debate has erupted in the United States over the pros and cons of the nuclear agreement. Republican-held Congress is set to vote on the deal after returning from recess in September. In order to shed some light on the political battle under way between the opponents and the proponents of the deal, we have spoken to Barbara Slavin, Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Atlantic Council’s South Asia Center in Washington D.C. 

The Iran deal: the view from Washington and Tehran

Last week, negotiators attempted a final push for a nuclear agreement with Iran. While points of disagreement remained, both sides haven’t walked away from the negotiations. But what happens once both sides agree to a deal? Insight from our partners at The Strategist.

By Dina Esfandiary

The Green Peace Dividend- Why Green Technologies Matter for International Security

Violent conflicts and security crises around the world have many different causes and effects. The vast majority of them, however, are in one way or another related to energy policy. Yet making this link apparent to policy makers has been challenging. Experts from the foreign policy, security and energy communities have been reluctant to fully grasp the security implications of promising green energy technology and market developments.

By Charlotte Beck, Rebecca Bertram

Assad’s strategy: don’t fight Daesh; direct it

While the air force of the U.S.-led coalition played a large role in defeating ISIS in Kobani, it didn’t react to ISIS’s latest attack on rebel-held areas. Many rebel leaders complained publically about the lack of U.S. interest in helping them defeat ISIS in Syria, although it is now apparent that the U.S. administration knows of the cooperation between Assad and ISIS. An analysis by Haid Haid, program manager of our Hbs office in Beirut.
By Haid Haid

Incredibly loud and extremely ignored

A no-fly zone is no solution for the conflict in Syria, but it would help save the lives of hundreds of people every month - and less people would be forced to seek refuge somewhere else. An analysis by Bente Scheller, director of our hbs office in Lebanon.

By Bente Scheller

“I worry about the commitment to Article V” - Hbs Interview with Julianne Smith

A new study released by the Pew Research Center finds that many European publics are highly conflicted over whether to defend a NATO ally against a potential future attack by Russia. In order to gain insight into the way the study was perceived in Washington’s policy circles, we interviewed Julianne Smith, Senior Fellow at the Center for a New American Security.

With or Without Him? The German Debate on Putin’s Suspension from the G7

Under Germany’s presidency, the G7 convened for the second summit in a row in the absence of Vladimir Putin. His continued suspension led to a vocal reprise of the German public debate on whether excluding Russia from the G7 was justified or counterproductive. As long as Putin does not change course in Ukraine, the G7 are well advised to stick to their suspension of Russia from their ranks.

By Charlotte Beck

The Federal Budget and Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2016: Democracy, Governance, and Human Rights in the Middle East and North Africa

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The Project on Middle East Democracy (POMED) and the Heinrich Böll Foundation of North America are pleased to announce the release of a new publication, The Federal Budget and Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2016: Democracy, Governance, and Human Rights in the Middle East and North Africa. U.S. support for democracy, governance, and human rights in the Middle East and North Africa is needed now more than ever.

 

Germany should support a ban on nuclear weapons

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The five-yearly Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is taking place from April 27 to May 22, 2015. In order to increase pressure for nuclear disarmament and to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, nuclear weapons need to be banned under international law.

Mission Impossible: Iran Is Too Powerful to Contain

While an accord between the P5+1 and Iran would first and foremost stop Iran's nuclear program from expanding, it offers the prospect of paving the way for Tehran’s more constructive engagement with regional and international stakeholders. Regional actors should recognize that a deal would give the international community the greatest chance of affecting Iranian foreign-policy decisions in the future.

By Ariane Tabatabai, Dina Esfandiary

Don’t Fear the Hard-Liners

If domestic politics kills the Iran nuclear program deal, it will be in Washington, not Tehran. The three months between the announcement of the agreement and when the final deal will be made public are a crucial phase that could make or break its success.

By Ariane Tabatabai

Europe One Year after the Annexation of Crimea

At the beginning of March, international experts discussed at the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung in Berlin Europe’s response to Russia’s intervention in Ukraine. They all agreed on Europe lacking a long-term strategy.

Greening Our Foreign Policy - Of Visions, Principles, and Contradictions

The world seems to be out of joint. Bloody, intractable wars are being waged in the heart of Africa and the Middle East. Democracy and human rights are challenged all over the world by old and new forms of authoritarian rule. Climate change advances, unhindered by the international community’s cumbersome efforts to stop its progress. Within this mayhem, what are the international norms, political actors and concrete initiatives breathing life into a Green vision for peace, social justice and environmental stability?
By Charlotte Beck

“Peace for Men Doesn’t Always Equal Peace for Women”

Celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, the Heinrich Böll Stiftung North America and its partners organized two panel discussions on strengthening accountability for gender-based crimes in armed conflicts. On this occasion, several international experts and activists discussed the current situation in Colombia, continued barriers to justice and cautious hopes for a more peaceful future.  

By Florian Kommer

In Lockstep or Freestyle? The German-American Tango on Arming Ukraine

With Minsk II threatened by its collapse only days after the agreement was reached, stern warnings have been voiced on both sides of the Atlantic on the looming possibility of a transatlantic rift in case the U.S. would decide to arm the Ukrainian government with defensive military equipment. But where do the German and U.S. public stand on this issue?

By Charlotte Beck

Foreign Fighters - The Perils and Perks of Western Policy Responses

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The recent Charlie Hebdo attacks have raised the level of alert about the security threat foreign fighters might pose to their home countries upon their return from Syria and Iraq. Rudine Emrich, trainee at the Heinrich Boell Foundation, assesses Western governments’ policy responses to violent extremism thus far and highlights what risks and opportunities different policy approaches might harbor.
 

Hannah Arendt, Putin and Today’s Russia

Hannah Arendt would have found a lot to dislike about today’s Russia. But she would have loved Pussy Riot. An excerpt from the lecture of Ralf Fücks upon the occasion of the 2014 Hannah Arendt Prize.

By Ralf Fücks

Stepping in before all hell breaks loose

Genocide and mass atrocities do not occur out of the blue. Thanks to an abundance of research, we can now identify many early warning signs of mass atrocities before all hell breaks loose. On December 11th, the Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation (AIPR) organized a conference on the implementation of Pillar II of the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) in cooperation with the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, White & Case LLP, and the Heinrich Boell Foundation North America.

 

By Charlotte Beck

A Green Foreign Policy: Coming of Age

While foreign policy remains a controversial subject for the German Greens, much has changed since the stormy days when then Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer stirred the party toward supporting the NATO intervention against Serbia. The changing Green foreign policy debate over the past decade has been closely embedded in the evolution of a broader post-WWII pacifist discourse in Germany. Spelling out the practical meaning of Germany’s growing responsibility in a conflict-ridden world will be a gradual process dependent on a mosaic of debates in the Bundestag, public events, the media, classrooms and market places. The Greens, for their part, have embarked on the journey.

By Charlotte Beck

Iran and the Arab World after the Nuclear Deadline

While the whole world has been watching the nuclear negotiations between Iran and the P5+1, Iran has quietly expanded its de facto influence in the region. Tehran can now claim considerable influence over four capitals in the Middle East, ranging from Baghdad, to Damascus, to Beirut and Sana’a. The breakdown of the old regional order, however, cannot be managed by any one state alone. The only way to put out the fire in the Middle East is to increase regional cooperation.

IS, ISIS or Daesh? Turbulences in the Alphabet Soup

ISIS has plenty of funding, but it does not live on material sources only: one of their most powerful weapons is to commit the most monstrous atrocities - and make sure everybody sees them. Unable so far to stop them, Arab activists at least try and mock them, and the French foreign minister tries to ban them rhetorically where they want to be least: in the letter soup. Instead of their self-chosen name "Islamic State" he from now on want to refer to them only by the acronym Daesh which they hate and try to ban by all means.

By Bente Scheller

Carol Mansour and Muna Khalidi

With no end to the bloodshed in Syria in sight, the number of registered Syrian refugees is estimated to surpass 3 million in September 2014. To highlight the challenges Syrian women are facing in exile, the Heinrich Böll Foundation North America will screen the award-winning documentary Not Who We Are in Washington DC, New York City and Boston in cooperation with several partner organizations. Filmmaker Carol Mansour and co-producer Muna Khalidi will join us for the screenings and subsequent panel discussions.

The United States, Turkey, and the Kurdish Regions: The Peace Process in Context

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A collaboration of the Center for American Progress and the Heinrich Böll Stiftung.

The past four years have swept away the old pillars of U.S. policy toward the Eastern Mediterranean. For the United States and Turkey, the rapidly changing political situation in Syria and Iraq underpins the need for new partners with whom to work toward regional stability and the provision of basic governance. This reality necessitates a re-evaluation of U.S. policy toward Kurdish political groups and a reinvigoration of Turkey’s peace process with its own Kurdish minority.

ISIS and Assad: Fear of Disintegration

It seems like a nightmare: The center of the crisis-ridden Middle East is seeing the formation of an Islamic entity that dilutes national borders and could potentially embroil the region in a war between radical militias. However, the West does not fear reorganization as much as it fears the impending disintegration.

By Bente Scheller

Who is afraid of ISIS? Not Assad.

With ISIS’ capture of Mosul, a nightmare seems to be becoming a reality: the development of a caliphate state in the heart of the Middle East. Should ISIS be allowed to become much more powerful in Syria, Assad can benefit from the West’s distorted perception of extremism.

Assessing Iran's Role in the Middle East

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The Iran Advisory Group convened its 10th meeting on May 30, 2014 in Beirut, Lebanon. The seminar shed some light on the impact the domestic dynamics under President Rouhani have on Iran’s regional policy agenda.

The Constitutional Process in Ukraine

The Ukrainian government should promote an inclusive, participatory and transparent constitutional process. Such a process could help de-escalate the current conflict and build confidence in the central government and its willingness to integrate all constituencies into Ukraine’s political system. 

By Dominik Tolksdorf

HBF Interview with MEP Tarja Cronberg

On the occasion of Tarja Cronberg’s visit to Washington D.C., we spoke about the current nuclear negotiations with Iran, human rights and the role of the EU.

By Tarja Cronberg

Afghans Find Their Way

The international community will play an important but secondary role in Afghanistan’s future as Afghans work to create a more sustainable state.

Transitional Justice

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Until now, transitional justice has, in many places, failed to address gender dimensions but increasingly so the issues of inequality, hierarchies and violence patterns. This study details these problems and presents the resulting challenges facing politicians and society.

Afghan Women Visioning 2024

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Afghan women have brought together a very personal account of achievements they have made over the last decade and they have lined out their interest in how the transformation decade beyond 2014 should look like for Afghan women.

[VIDEO] Growing Opposition to President Hassan Rouhani: Is the Honeymoon Ending?

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani is seeing escalating public criticism from Iran's conservative factions, once seemingly stifled by Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei. Will Rouhani's presidency follow in the footsteps of the Mohammad Khatami era? HBS and the Stimson Center hosted a panel discussion on the shifting internal political dynamics in Iran.

Dossier: The Future of Arms Control

HBS Berlin held an international expert conference on the “Future of Arms Control,” jointly organized with the German Institute for International and Security Affairs and the Institute for Peace Research and Security Studies (IFSH).

Perspectives: Political Analysis and Commentary from Africa

Perspectives is a publication series of the Africa offices of the Heinrich Böll Stiftung. With this series, we intend to let experts from Africa express their views about current political issues in their region. Perspectives focuses on Southern- , East- and West Africa where the foundation has established offices.

U.S. Says Nuclear Security Work Remains

United States has decided to host a nuclear security summit in 2016, which would be the fourth such meeting to strengthen and deepen the "existing nuclear security architecture" before the summit process ends. Although a July 2013 ministerial-level conference on the topic played an important role in strengthening and institutionalizing nuclear security, the White House does not deem progress in this area to be sufficient for the summit process to end.

The Federal Budget and Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2014

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This report, authored by POMED's Executive Director Stephen McInerey and Advocacy Director Cole Bockenfeld, offers a detailed look at U.S. funding and assistance for democracy and governance in the Middle East, the congressional appropriations process, and implications for U.S. policy in the Middle East during a turbulent time.

Winning the Power of Information: How Assad Defines the Facts

Bashar al-Assad’s regime depends on an extensive propaganda machine for its political survival. This has had a tremendous impact on the Syrian conflict, dividing the international community and helping to discredit the opposition. Despite there being hardly a place in Syria in which the regime rules unchallenged, Damascus has largely won the power of information: the ability to define facts in this war.

 

What Can the European Union Do in Syria? - Foreign & Security Policy

As a follow-up to the closed workshop "The responsibility to protect in Syria - What can the European Union do?" organized by the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung European Union and Dutch peace organization IKV Pax Christi on 5th of December 2012, this joint policy paper focuses on what could be done by the EU in Syria.

Afghanistan's Transition in the Making

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Afghanistan represents a very particular case of military intervention-cum-state-building-cum-democratization. Afghan women parliamentarians and civil society actors have positioned themselves against a complete withdrawal of the international community by 2014.

Climate - Migration - Security

Growing evidence of links between climate change, migration, and conflict raise plenty of reasons for concern and it’s time to start thinking about new answers to these multifaceted crisis scenarios. - New report on Climate Change, Migration, and Conflict in South Asia!

Closure of the Heinrich Böll Foundation office in Ethiopia

The Heinrich Böll Foundation will close its office in Ethiopia at the end of 2012. The current political and legal situation in the country is such that the Foundation is unable to carry out its work in a politically sustainable and practicable manner. We can no longer fulfil our mission of working with local partners to support democracy, gender justice and sustainable development.

[VIDEO] Understanding Iranian Public Opinion

In the midst of bombastic rhetoric exchanged among Iran, Israel, and Western states over the nuclear issue, Iranian public opinion is seldom heard on topics such as the nuclear program, international sanctions, and a potential military strike. Where do the Iranian people stand? Watch the discussion of Iranian Public Opinion hosted by HBF and the Stimson Center.

Sudan after Separation - New Approaches to a New Region

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Hardly a year has passed since Sudan split in two. For much of the time, both sides have been embroiled in conflict. The authors lay out new approaches to a new region, providing guidance to understand the complex political realities of the two Sudans, and point out areas where constructive international engagement is possible.

The Federal Budget and Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2013

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This fifth annual report offers a detailed look at the U.S. administration's approach to funding and providing assistance to support democracy and governance in the Middle East and North Africa. As some countries in the region embark on political transitions and others continue to protest authoritarian rule, it is important to examine changes in U.S. funding for the Middle East and the impact on Washington’s relations with the region.

International Security Guarantees on the Way to a Permanent Agreement on a Two-State-Solution Israel / Palestine

From mid-2010 to mid-2011 a working group of Israeli and Palestinian security experts developed concrete proposals and practical steps for international security guarantees in the case of a two state solution between Israel and Palestine. This work was undertaken at the invitation of the Heinrich Böll Stiftung. The group presents their recommendations at several events in Berlin, Brussels and Washington, DC.

Syria's Revolution: Society, Power, Ideology

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It is almost a year ago that Syrian citizens, inspired by the revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt, courageously took to the streets in protest against the decades-long denial of their basic rights by the Assad regime.

Dangerous Journey. Migration through the Transit Land Mexico

The discovery of 72 killed migrants in the northern state of Tamaulipas in August 2011 was a tragic event that accelerated and enhanced public awareness for the problem of severe human rights violations toward migrants in Mexico. Since then, new cases are continually coming out in the open. The majority of the migrants killed in Mexico are never identified and remain nameless.

Women, Revolution, Politics and Power

During the Arab uprisings, an unprecedented number of women took to the streets, paving the way for a more important role in politics. However, in the transitional period that follows, they now have to fight against their exclusion from the political arena.

The Story of the Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in Israel

Eleven years ago, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1325 (October 31, 2000). This groundbreaking resolution sent a significant message to many countries, including Israel. Anat Thon Ashkenazi of the NGO Itach-Maaki Women Lawyers for Social Justice describes the efforts of the implementation of UNSCR 1325 in Israel to date.

By Anat Thon Ashkenazy

The German Mission in Afghanistan

German involvement in Afghanistan did not begin with the attacks of September 11. German humanitarian and development aid existed before the German military intervention – and it will (and must) still be there after the military mission is over.

People's Power - The Arab World in Revolt

The self-immolation of young and jobless Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi in the provincial town of Sidi Bouzid, being deprived of his vegetable stand and humiliated by the authorities, triggered popular movements and historic events in the Arab World completely unexpected in their magnitude.

Afghanistan 2011 - 10 Years of International Engagement

After ten years of international involvement in Afghanistan, a second conference will take plan in Bonn this December 2011 to discuss the country’s future. Since 2002, the Heinrich Böll Foundation has actively supported the development of civil society in Afghanistan and has promoted exchanges between the German and Afghan public. The following dossier provides a venue for comments, analysis and debate ahead of the Bonn Conference on Afghanistan.

After the Death of Osama bin Laden: Now to Break the Al- Qaeda Franchise

It is young people at the heart of the Arab revolt who are rebelling not for jihad but for freedom and democracy. Nevertheless, bin Laden's death opens up huge opportunities worldwide. President Barack Obama needs to follow up on the promise he made in Cairo, two years ago, when he pledged to build bridges to the Muslim world.

Effects of the Arab Spring

Because the Arab democracy movement is spreading to the Palestinian territories, Fatah and Hamas had to sign a reconciliation agreement in early May.

Ambition and Peril: Nuclear Energy and the Arab World

Should Arab countries with less advanced technological capacities invest in nuclear power that proved uncontrollable in Fukushima, Japan? Activists and policy-makers from the Arab World and Europe critically discuss these and other questions in this report.

Revolutions among the Southern Neighbors

The people of Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, and also in other countries such as Yemen, Bahrain and Algeria are revolting against encrusted structures. Which direction the movement will take is still open, but one thing has become clear during the last few weeks: Neither the EU nor the EU Member States can claim that the current transition process in Tunisia or Egypt is a direct result of the European democratization policy.

Women's Voices, Women's Choices

On the occasion of the 100 year anniversary of the International Women's Day and to celebrate women empowerment, the Heinrich Böll Foundation publishes a dossier with articles and contributions from all over the world.

Europe’s New Divide

The European Union ushers in the new year amid the ruins of its foreign policy with regard to Eastern Europe. If the EU wants to be a strategic actor in Eastern Europe, it will have to offer credible accession perspectives to all countries wishing to be a part of democratic Europe.

Jasmine Hope

The Jasmine Revolution has prevailed, and the dictator has fled. The Tunisian people have outlined a new page in their history and the history of the Arab world during this first half of 2011.

Placing Human Rights Violations in Iran on Top of the Foreign Policy Agenda

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As more time passes since the disputed June 2009 election in Iran that returned President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to power, the Iranian regime’s campaign of repression against its own citizens deepens. Now more than ever, the segment of the Iranian population seeking positive change feels depleted and disillusioned. This report focuses on the desires of Iranians who are directly involved in the opposition movement or who support the movement regarding the steps governments should take to pressure Iran on its human rights violations.

Beyond Guantánamo

How to restore the credibility of a country whose foundations and self-understanding are based on the universality of freedom and human rights, but that has violated precisely those rights by practicing torture in Guantánamo and other prisons around the world? Thomas C. Hilde outlines several post-Guantánamo detainee policy proposals – and their difficulties – that address these distinctive sets of issues.

Middle East Delegation on Human Rights to Washington DC

On the occasion of the anniversary of U.S. President Obama’s Cairo Speech and the upcoming elections in Egypt, the North America and Arab Middle East offices of the Heinrich Boell Stiftung invited a delegation of human right activists from the Middle East.

By Amal Basha, Michael Posner, Michele Dunne, Tamara Cofman Wittes, Bahey El Din Hassan

Hamas Gains the Most from Israeli Raid

Israel’s raid on a flotilla of humanitarian aid has refocused global attention on Gaza’s isolation. In a new Q&A, Taghreed El-Khodary, visiting scholar on hiatus from reporting in the Gaza Strip for the New York Times, details what’s happening on the ground in Gaza and how the incident will shape politics in the area. El-Khodary says that Israel’s action helps Hamas and the group is now operating from a position of greater strength.

By Middle East Progress

The Federal Budget and Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2011

The Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI) has become a centerpiece of the administration's efforts to engage civil society and support democracy in the region. Following a 30% increase in funding in FY10, the new budget requests an additional 32% increase up to $86 million.

Palestine and the Palestinians 60 Years after the "Nakba"

The geographic and social fragmentation of the Palestinian people is essentially a result of the conflict in the Middle East. This topic represents the main focus of our two-day conference with international experts in March 2010. Our dossier provides further information about the conference and the invited experts.

London Conference and Pakistan

In the post-London scenario, caution becomes even more necessary; if the international community wants to try the dialogue option, it shall have to lower the temperature by scaling down combat operations.

Afghanistan on the Eve of the London Conference

Nine years after 9/11 and all the blood and treasure expended on efforts in the region, President Barack Obama told People magazine on January 11 that 'the border region between Afghanistan and Pakistan remains the epicenter of al’ Qaeda, their leadership and their extremist allies.

Pakistan - Reality, Denial and the Complexity of its State

December 28, 2009This publication is designed to provide a differentiated view of Pakistan’s complex political processes and social challenges to a broad international audience. Authors from a variety of disciplines present their analyses of Pakistan’s deficits and shortcomings, as well as their ideas and visions for a more democratic and peaceful future.

The Future of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime

The risk of nuclear anarchy is no longer a distant horror scenario; it has entered the realms of possibility. Heinrich Böll Foundation held its tenth Annual Foreign Policy Conference on September 10 and 11.

The Federal Budget and Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2010

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In May, President Obama submitted to Congress the full details of his first budget request, for Fiscal Year 2010.This report offers an in-depth analysis of Obama’s attempts to support democracy, governance, and human rights in the Broader Middle East and North Africa.

What Europe Can Do for Iraq: A Blueprint for Action

President Obama has approached the European Union to become more active in Iraq, and the EU itself has expressed interested to re-engage. But what can, and what should, Europe do? And how shall this be articulated with the American effort?

Iraq's Displacement Crisis and the International Response (II)

As experts and practitioners from Europe, the United States, and the Middle East are brought together, this event will examine the humanitarian and security implications of Iraq’s displacement crisis, and also share and identify possible strategies and policy options to respond to the crisis.