This article explores how growth of the finance sector can overtake growth in the "real" economy, including manufacturing or trade, and depress wages as returns to capital are protected or increased. In developing and emerging countries, financialisation deepens the vulnerability of local financial systems when they are subject to the volatility of global capital markets and the interest rate decisions of large countries, particularly the US. Without proper controls, financialization can redirect the development process towards securing the profits of private companies and private finance.
Mega-infrastructure plans and financing and investment policies to promote private investments in the energy, transport and water sectors are on the rise. This publication provides recommendations to policy- and decision-makers on how human rights and environmental benefits can be maximized.
The Investment Plan for Europe, the Program for Infrastructure Development in Africa, and the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative all seek to promote infrastructure investment - but involve significant risks regarding environmental sustainability, social impacts, and unfavorable technological lock-ins for the next decades.
Infrastructure is essential to the achievement of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and to the success of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. Our partner IISD presents why governments must invest in sustainable infrastructure and how they can integrate sustainability into infrastructure contracts.
Infrastructure development acts as a gateway to natural resources and markets, powers industry, and provides key services to citizens around the world. However, the OECD’s infrastructure investment advice to the G20 is “out of sync” with recent achievements of the global community, such as the new UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
At the request of the G20, staff at the World Bank has prepared a report recommending model language for public-private partnership (PPP) contracts. Unfortunately, the proposals fail to grapple with several of the problems that have plagued many PPP schemes, or contribute in a constructive way to finding solutions to them.
The G20 has fallen behind other international organizations in addressing the challenges of climate change and supporting sustainable energy transformation and electrification. This article lays the foundation for a reflection and discussion on what the G20 can usefully do to support these transformations, and how it must change to achieve this.